Investigating Permanence Principles of Sustainability in the Sabaean-Himyaritic Yemeni Architecture


  • Ahmed Alnehmi Faculty of Engineering, Thamar University (Yamen)



The study aims to identify a set of standards and innovations that achieve sustainability in ancient Yemeni architecture. It also attempts to know the experiences and skills of the ancient Yemeni people in the field of architecture, which led to the production of sustainable architecture. The methodology followed a historical approach to trace developments in architecture. It also relies on an analytical approach in analyzing samples and analyzing architectural and cultural characteristics. The study concluded that the ancient Yemeni people used building materials such as clay, stone, and wood to achieve the principles of sustainability. The architecture of the Himyarite Sabaean era was influenced by several factors, including the choice of a suitable site, available local materials, and local techniques. The study recommends official and private experts take advantage of the solutions to ancient Yemeni architecture and apply them to modern architecture. This study deals with the ancient Yemeni civilization, especially the Sabaean and Himyarite architecture. It seeks a deep understanding of the foundations that formed the first nucleus of inherited styles, and knowledge of the reasons for the continuation of civilization.


Sustainability, Architecture, Yemen, Sabaean-Himyaritic, Permanence, Continuity


Al-Ariqi, M., (2002). Architecture Thought and Religious Thought in Ancient Yemen, from 1500/600 BC. [In Arabic], Cairo, Madbouli Library.

Al-Hayir, A., (2014). The Palace in the Old Yemen between the News and the Impact. (Dissertation Master), [In Arabic], Sana'a University, Yamen.

Al-Nehmi, A., (2015). Meaning in Ancient Yemeni Architecture: Case Study of Old Sanaa. (Doctoral dissertation), [In Arabic], Cairo University, Egypt.

AlSayyad, N., & Arboleda, G. (2011). The sustainable indigenous vernacular: Interrogating a myth. Aesthetics of Sustainable Architecture. Rotterdam, 10, 134-151.‏

Akadiri, P. O., Chinyio, E. A., & Olomolaiye, P. O. (2012). Design of a sustainable building: A conceptual framework for implementing sustainability in the building sector. Buildings, 2(2), 126-152.‏

Barbanes, E. (2000). Domestic and defensive architecture on the Yemen plateau: Eighth century BCE–sixth century CE. Arabian archaeology and epigraphy, 11(2), 207-222.‏

Colburn, M. (2006). From the Queen of Sheba to the Republic of Yemen: K-12 Resource Guide and Classroom Ideas. American Institute for Yemeni Studies.‏

De Maigret, A. (2002). Arabia Felix: an exploration of the archaeological history of Yemen. London, Stacey International.‏

De Maigret, A. (2005). Some reflections on the South Arabian bayt in, X, 2005, pp. 101-109. In Archäologische Berichte aus dem Yemen (Vol. 10, pp. 101-109). Philipp Von Zabern.‏

Doe, D. B. (1971). Southern Arabia. London, Thames and Hudson.‏

Fedele, F. G. (2008, January). Wādī aṯ-Ṯayyilah 3, a Neolithic and Pre-Neolithic occupation on the eastern Yemen Plateau, and its archaeofaunal information. In Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies (pp. 153-171). Archaeopress.‏

Hitgen, H. (2005). The age of the fighting kingdoms. South Arabia (1. Century BC–3. Century AD). Aspects of the material culture in a period of change”, in Archäologische Beriche aus dem Yemen, 10, 45-68.‏

Hosseini, S., Basiri, M., and Zarbaf, V., (2014). Recognition of Sustainability Concepts; A Requirements for Integrating Traditional Iranian Architecture with Application of Modern Architectural Techniques. Journal of Art and Architecture Studies (JAAS), 3(2), 72-78.

Matar, F., Palaiologou, F., & Richards, S. (2023). Urban sustainability assessment for vernacular and traditional built environments. Journal of Urban Management, 12(2), 129-140.‏

Nainggolan, S. M., Dewi, O. C., & Panjaitan, T. H. (2020, October). 10 Criteria of Sustainable Housing: A Literature Review. In 3rd International Conference on Dwelling Form (IDWELL 2020) (pp. 42-53). Atlantis Press.‏

Nemati, M. A., Bemanian, M. R., & Ansari, M. (2017). A framework for sustainable architecture in Iran with emphasis on the views of scholars. Journal of Building Performance ISSN, 8(1), 2017.‏

Sahraiyanjahromi, F., & Mosaberpanah, M. A. (2018). Survey of sustainable criteria on building design. Sustainable Structures and Materials, An International Journal, 1(1), 30-36.‏

Wilkinson, T. J., Edens, C., & Gibson, M. (1997). The archaeology of the Yemen high plains: a preliminary chronology. Arabian archaeology and epigraphy, 8(1), 99-142.‏

Yule, P., Franke, K., Meyer, C., Nebe, G. W., Robin, C., & Witzel, C. (2007). Zafar, Capital of Himyar, Ibb Province, Yemen: First Preliminary Report: Summer 1998 and Autumn 2000, Second Preliminary Report: 2002, Third Preliminary Report: 2003, Fourth Preliminary Report: 2004. Archäologische Berichte aus dem Yemen, 11.‏




How to Cite

Alnehmi, A. (2024). Investigating Permanence Principles of Sustainability in the Sabaean-Himyaritic Yemeni Architecture. Journal of Palestine Ahliya University for Research and Studies, 3(1), 1–15.